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# 22. Differential Equations

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## 22.1 Definitions for Differential Equations

Function: bc2 (solution, xval1, yval1, xval2, yval2)

Solves boundary value problem for second order differential equation. Here: solution is a general solution to the equation, as found by `ode2`, xval1 is an equation for the independent variable in the form `x = x0`, and yval1 is an equation for the dependent variable in the form `y = y0`. The xval2 and yval2 are equations for these variables at another point. See `ode2` for example of usage.

Function: desolve (eqn, x)
Function: desolve ([eqn_1, ..., eqn_n], [x_1, ..., x_n])

The function `dsolve` solves systems of linear ordinary differential equations using Laplace transform. Here the eqn's are differential equations in the dependent variables x_1, ..., x_n. The functional relationships must be explicitly indicated in both the equations and the variables. For example

 ```'diff(f,x,2)=sin(x)+'diff(g,x); 'diff(f,x)+x^2-f=2*'diff(g,x,2); ```

is not the proper format. The correct way is:

 ```'diff(f(x),x,2)=sin(x)+'diff(g(x),x); 'diff(f(x),x)+x^2-f=2*'diff(g(x),x,2); ```

The call is then `desolve([%o3,%o4],[f(x),g(x)]);` .

If initial conditions at 0 are known, they should be supplied before calling `desolve` by using `atvalue`.

 ```(%i1) 'diff(f(x),x)='diff(g(x),x)+sin(x); d d (%o1) -- (f(x)) = -- (g(x)) + sin(x) dx dx (%i2) 'diff(g(x),x,2)='diff(f(x),x)-cos(x); 2 d d (%o2) --- (g(x)) = -- (f(x)) - cos(x) 2 dx dx (%i3) atvalue('diff(g(x),x),x=0,a); (%o3) a (%i4) atvalue(f(x),x=0,1); (%o4) 1 (%i5) desolve([%o1,%o2],[f(x),g(x)]); x (%o5) [f(x) = a %e - a + 1, g(x) = x cos(x) + a %e - a + g(0) - 1] (%i6) [%o1,%o2],%o5,diff; x x x x (%o6) [a %e = a %e , a %e - cos(x) = a %e - cos(x)] ```

If `desolve` cannot obtain a solution, it returns `false`.

Function: ic1 (solution, xval, yval)

Solves initial value problem for first order differential equation. Here: solution is a general solution to the equation, as found by `ode2`, xval is an equation for the independent variable in the form `x = x0`, and yval is an equation for the dependent variable in the form `y = y0`. See `ode2` for example of usage.

Function: ic2 (solution, xval, yval, dval)

Solves initial value problem for second order differential equation. Here: solution is a general solution to the equation, as found by `ode2`, xval is an equation for the independent variable in the form `x = x0`, yval is an equation for the dependent variable in the form `y = y0`, and dval is an equation for the derivative of the dependent variable with respect to independent variable evaluated at the point xval. See `ode2` for example of usage.

Function: ode2 (eqn, dvar, ivar)

The function `ode2` solves ordinary differential equations of first or second order. It takes three arguments: an ODE eqn, the dependent variable dvar, and the independent variable ivar. When successful, it returns either an explicit or implicit solution for the dependent variable. `%c` is used to represent the constant in the case of first order equations, and `%k1` and `%k2` the constants for second order equations. If `ode2` cannot obtain a solution for whatever reason, it returns `false`, after perhaps printing out an error message. The methods implemented for first order equations in the order in which they are tested are: linear, separable, exact - perhaps requiring an integrating factor, homogeneous, Bernoulli's equation, and a generalized homogeneous method. For second order: constant coefficient, exact, linear homogeneous with non-constant coefficients which can be transformed to constant coefficient, the Euler or equidimensional equation, the method of variation of parameters, and equations which are free of either the independent or of the dependent variable so that they can be reduced to two first order linear equations to be solved sequentially. In the course of solving ODEs, several variables are set purely for informational purposes: `method` denotes the method of solution used e.g. `linear`, `intfactor` denotes any integrating factor used, `odeindex` denotes the index for Bernoulli's method or for the generalized homogeneous method, and `yp` denotes the particular solution for the variation of parameters technique.

In order to solve initial value problems (IVPs) and boundary value problems (BVPs), the routine `ic1` is available for first order equations, and `ic2` and `bc2` for second order IVPs and BVPs, respectively.

Example:

 ```(%i1) x^2*'diff(y,x) + 3*y*x = sin(x)/x; 2 dy sin(x) (%o1) x -- + 3 x y = ------ dx x (%i2) ode2(%,y,x); %c - cos(x) (%o2) y = ----------- 3 x (%i3) ic1(%o2,x=%pi,y=0); cos(x) + 1 (%o3) y = - ---------- 3 x (%i4) 'diff(y,x,2) + y*'diff(y,x)^3 = 0; 2 d y dy 3 (%o4) --- + y (--) = 0 2 dx dx (%i5) ode2(%,y,x); 3 y + 6 %k1 y (%o5) ------------ = x + %k2 6 (%i6) ratsimp(ic2(%o5,x=0,y=0,'diff(y,x)=2)); 3 2 y - 3 y (%o6) - ---------- = x 6 (%i7) bc2(%o5,x=0,y=1,x=1,y=3); 3 y - 10 y 3 (%o7) --------- = x - - 6 2 ```

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