The **vector** data type is flexible and general. A vector is simply a
list of zero or more data objects. When these objects are numbers, the
whole is a vector in the mathematical sense. When these objects are
themselves vectors of equal (nonzero) length, the whole is a **matrix**.
A vector which is not a matrix is referred to here as a **plain vector**.

A vector is displayed as a list of values separated by commas and enclosed
in square brackets: ``[1, 2, 3]'`. Thus the following is a 2 row by
3 column matrix: ``[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]'`. Vectors, like complex
numbers, are entered as incomplete objects. See section Incomplete Objects.
During algebraic entry, vectors are entered all at once in the usual
brackets-and-commas form. Matrices may be entered algebraically as nested
vectors, or using the shortcut notation ``[1, 2, 3; 4, 5, 6]'`,
with rows separated by semicolons. The commas may usually be omitted
when entering vectors: ``[1 2 3]'`. Curly braces may be used in
place of brackets: ``{1, 2, 3}'`, but the commas are required in
this case.

Traditional vector and matrix arithmetic is also supported; see section Basic Arithmetic and see section Vector/Matrix Functions. Many other operations are applied to vectors element-wise. For example, the complex conjugate of a vector is a vector of the complex conjugates of its elements.

Algebraic functions for building vectors include ``vec(a, b, c)'`
to build ``[a, b, c]'`, ``cvec(a, n, m)'` to build an @c{$n\times m$}
`n`x`m`
matrix of ``a'`s, and ``index(n)'` to build a vector of integers
from 1 to ``n'`.

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