Go to the first, previous, next, last section, table of contents.

Integers are stored in either of two ways, depending on their magnitude.
Integers less than one million in absolute value are stored as standard
Lisp integers. This is the only storage format for Calc data objects
which is not a Lisp list.

Large integers are stored as lists of the form ``(bigpos ``d0`
`d1` `d2` ...)' for positive integers 1000000 or more, or
``(bigneg ``d0` `d1` `d2` ...)' for negative integers
*-1000000* or less. Each `d` is a base-1000 "digit," a Lisp integer
from 0 to 999. The least significant digit is `d0`; the last digit,
`dn`, which is always nonzero, is the most significant digit. For
example, the integer *-12345678* is stored as ``(bigneg 678 345 12)'`.

The distinction between small and large integers is entirely hidden from
the user. In `defmath`

definitions, the Lisp predicate `integerp`

returns true for either kind of integer, and in general both big and small
integers are accepted anywhere the word "integer" is used in this manual.
If the distinction must be made, native Lisp integers are called **fixnums**
and large integers are called **bignums**.

Fractions are stored as a list of the form, ``(frac ``n` `d`)'
where `n` is an integer (big or small) numerator, `d` is an
integer denominator greater than one, and `n` and `d` are relatively
prime. Note that fractions where `d` is one are automatically converted
to plain integers by all math routines; fractions where `d` is negative
are normalized by negating the numerator and denominator.

Floating-point numbers are stored in the form, ``(float ``mant`
`exp`)', where `mant` (the "mantissa") is an integer less than
``10^``p`' in absolute value (`p` represents the current
precision), and `exp` (the "exponent") is a fixnum. The value of
the float is ````mant` * 10^`exp`'. For example, the number
*-3.14* is stored as ``(float -314 -2) = -314*10^-2'`. Other constraints
are that the number 0.0 is always stored as ``(float 0 0)'`, and,
except for the 0.0 case, the rightmost base-10 digit of `mant` is
always nonzero. (If the rightmost digit is zero, the number is
rearranged by dividing `mant` by ten and incrementing `exp`.)

Rectangular complex numbers are stored in the form ``(cplx ``re`
`im`)', where `re` and `im` are each real numbers, either
integers, fractions, or floats. The value is ````re` + `im`i'.
The `im` part is nonzero; complex numbers with zero imaginary
components are converted to real numbers automatically.

Polar complex numbers are stored in the form ``(polar ``r`
`theta`)', where `r` is a positive real value and `theta`
is a real value or HMS form representing an angle. This angle is
usually normalized to lie in the interval ``(-180 .. 180)'` degrees,
or ``(-pi .. pi)'` radians, according to the current angular mode.
If the angle is 0 the value is converted to a real number automatically.
(If the angle is 180 degrees, the value is usually also converted to a
negative real number.)

Hours-minutes-seconds forms are stored as ``(hms ``h` `m`
`s`)', where `h` is an integer or an integer-valued float (i.e.,
a float with ````exp` >= 0'), `m` is an integer or integer-valued
float in the range ``[0 .. 60)'`, and `s` is any real number
in the range ``[0 .. 60)'`.

Date forms are stored as ``(date ``n`)', where `n` is
a real number that counts days since midnight on the morning of
January 1, 1 AD. If `n` is an integer, this is a pure date
form. If `n` is a fraction or float, this is a date/time form.

Modulo forms are stored as ``(mod ``n` `m`)', where `m` is a
positive real number or HMS form, and `n` is a real number or HMS
form in the range ``[0 .. ``m`)'.

Error forms are stored as ``(sdev ``x` `sigma`)', where `x`
is the mean value and `sigma` is the standard deviation. Each
component is either a number, an HMS form, or a symbolic object
(a variable or function call). If `sigma` is zero, the value is
converted to a plain real number. If `sigma` is negative or
complex, it is automatically normalized to be a positive real.

Interval forms are stored as ``(intv ``mask` `lo` `hi`)',
where `mask` is one of the integers 0, 1, 2, or 3, and `lo` and
`hi` are real numbers, HMS forms, or symbolic objects. The `mask`
is a binary integer where 1 represents the fact that the interval is
closed on the high end, and 2 represents the fact that it is closed on
the low end. (Thus 3 represents a fully closed interval.) The interval
``(intv 3 ``x` `x`)' is converted to the plain number `x`;
intervals ``(intv ``mask` `x` `x`)' for any other `mask`
represent empty intervals. If `hi` is less than `lo`, the interval
is converted to a standard empty interval by replacing `hi` with `lo`.

Vectors are stored as ``(vec ``v1` `v2` ...)', where `v1`
is the first element of the vector, `v2` is the second, and so on.
An empty vector is stored as ``(vec)'`. A matrix is simply a vector
where all `v`'s are themselves vectors of equal lengths. Note that
Calc vectors are unrelated to the Emacs Lisp "vector" type, which is
generally unused by Calc data structures.

Variables are stored as ``(var ``name` `sym`)', where
`name` is a Lisp symbol whose print name is used as the visible name
of the variable, and `sym` is a Lisp symbol in which the variable's
value is actually stored. Thus, ``(var pi var-pi)'` represents the
special constant ``pi'`. Almost always, the form is ``(var
``v` var-`v`)'. If the variable name was entered with `#`

signs (which are converted to hyphens internally), the form is
``(var ``u` `v`)', where `u` is a symbol whose name
contains `#`

characters, and `v` is a symbol that contains
`-`

characters instead. The value of a variable is the Calc
object stored in its `sym` symbol's value cell. If the symbol's
value cell is void or if it contains `nil`

, the variable has no
value. Special constants have the form ``(special-const
``value`)' stored in their value cell, where `value` is a formula
which is evaluated when the constant's value is requested. Variables
which represent units are not stored in any special way; they are units
only because their names appear in the units table. If the value
cell contains a string, it is parsed to get the variable's value when
the variable is used.

A Lisp list with any other symbol as the first element is a function call.
The symbols `+`

, `-`

, `*`

, `/`

, `%`

, `^`

,
and `|`

represent special binary operators; these lists are always
of the form ``(``op` `lhs` `rhs`)' where `lhs` is the
sub-formula on the lefthand side and `rhs` is the sub-formula on the
right. The symbol `neg`

represents unary negation; this list is always
of the form ``(neg ``arg`)'. Any other symbol `func` represents a
function that would be displayed in function-call notation; the symbol
`func` is in general always of the form ``calcFunc-``name`'.
The function cell of the symbol `func` should contain a Lisp function
for evaluating a call to `func`. This function is passed the remaining
elements of the list (themselves already evaluated) as arguments; such
functions should return `nil`

or call `reject-arg`

to signify
that they should be left in symbolic form, or they should return a Calc
object which represents their value, or a list of such objects if they
wish to return multiple values. (The latter case is allowed only for
functions which are the outer-level call in an expression whose value is
about to be pushed on the stack; this feature is considered obsolete
and is not used by any built-in Calc functions.)

Go to the first, previous, next, last section, table of contents.