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Selecting Files by Characteristic

To avoid crossing file system boundaries when archiving parts of a directory tree, use `--one-file-system' (`-l'). This option only affects files that are archived because they are in a directory that is being archived; files explicitly named on the command line are archived regardless of where they reside.

This option is useful for making full or incremental archival backups of a file system.

If this option is used in conjunction with `--verbose' (`-v'), files that are excluded are mentioned by name on the standard error.

Prevents tar from crossing file system boundaries when archiving. Use in conjunction with any write operation.

To avoid operating on files whose names match a particular pattern, use the `--exclude=pattern' or `--exclude-from=file-of-patterns' (`-X file-of-patterns') options.

When you specify the `--exclude=pattern' option, tar ignores files which match the pattern, which can be a single file name or a more complex expression. Thus, if you invoke tar with `tar --create --exclude=*.o', no files whose names end in `.o' are included in the archive.

FIXME: what other things can you use besides "*"?

`--exclude-from=file-of-patterns' (`-X file-of-patterns') acts like `--exclude=pattern', but specifies a file file containing a list of patterns. tar ignores files with names that fit any of these patterns.

You can use either option more than once in a single command.

Causes tar to ignore files that match the pattern.

Causes tar to ignore files that match the patterns listed in file.
FIXME: --exclude-from used to be "--exclude", --exclude didn't used to
FIXME: exist.

To operate only on files with modification or status-change times after a particular date, use `--after-date=date' (`-N date'). You can use this option with `--create' (`-c') or `--append' (`-r') to insure only new files are archived, or with `--extract' (`-x') to insure only recent files are resurrected.

FIXME: or --newer date

`--newer-mtime=date' acts like `--after-date=date' (`-N date') but tests just the modification times of the files, ignoring status-change times.

FIXME: need example of --newer-mtime with quoted argument
Remember that the entire date argument should be quoted if it contains any spaces.

Please Note: `--after-date=date' (`-N date') and `--newer-mtime=date' should not be used for incremental backups. Some files (such as those in renamed directories) are not selected up properly by these options.

FIXME: xref to incremental backup chapter when node name is decided.

`-N date'
Acts on files only if their modification or inode-changed times are later than date. Use in conjunction with any operation.
Acts like `--after-date=date' (`-N date'), but only looks at modification times.

FIXME: following is the getdate date format -- needs to be re-written,
FIXME: made a sub-node:

Time/Date Formats Accepted by getdate (omitting obscure constructions)

The input consists of one or more of: time zone day date year in any order.

Those in turn consist of (`|' and `/' mean `or', `[]' means `optional'):

time: H am/pm | H:M [am/pm] | H:M:S [am/pm] zone: timezone-name | timezone-name dst day: day-name | day-name, | N day-name date: M/D | M/D/Y | month-name D | month-name D, Y | D month-name | D month-name Y year: Y

am can also be a.m., pm can also be p.m. case and spaces around punctuation are not significant.

FIXME: month and day names can be abbreviated.

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