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An abbrev is a text string which expands into a different text string
when present in the buffer. For example, you might define a short
word as an abbrev for a long phrase that you want to insert
frequently. See section 略称.
Aborting means getting out of a recursive edit (q.v.). The
commands C-] and M-x top-level are used for this.
See section 取りやめ(Quit)と中止(Abort).
- Auto Fill mode
Auto Fill mode is a minor mode in which text that you insert is
automatically broken into lines of fixed width. See section テキストの詰め込み.
- Auto Saving
Auto saving is when Emacs automatically stores the contents of an
Emacs buffer in a specially-named file so that the information will
not be lost if the buffer is lost due to a system error or user error.
See section 自動セーブ:不慮の事故に対するプロテクト.
- Backup File
A backup file records the contents that a file had before the current
editing session. Emacs makes backup files automatically to help you
track down or cancel changes you later regret making. See section ファイルのバックアップ.
- Balance Parentheses
Emacs can balance parentheses manually or automatically. Manual
balancing is done by the commands to move over balanced expressions
(see section リストとS式). Automatic balancing is done by blinking the
parenthesis that matches one just inserted (see section 左右のかっこの対応の自動表示).
To bind a key is to change its binding (q.v.). See section 対話式のキーの結び付きの変更.
A key gets its meaning in Emacs by having a binding which is a
command (q.v.), a Lisp function that is run when the key is typed.
See section キーとコマンド. Customization often involves rebinding a
character to a different command function. The bindings of all keys
are recorded in the keymaps (q.v.). See section キーマップ.
- Blank Lines
Blank lines are lines that contain only whitespace. Emacs has several
commands for operating on the blank lines in the buffer.
The buffer is the basic editing unit; one buffer corresponds to one
piece of text being edited. You can have several buffers, but at any
time you are editing only one, the `selected' buffer, though several
can be visible when you are using multiple windows. See section マルチプルバッファの使い方.
- Buffer Selection History
Emacs keeps a buffer selection history which records how recently each
Emacs buffer has been selected. This is used for choosing a buffer to
select. See section マルチプルバッファの使い方.
`C' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for Control.
See section Emacsの文字セット.
`C-M-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for
Control-Meta. See section Emacsの文字セット.
- Case Conversion
Case conversion means changing text from upper case to lower case or
vice versa. See section 大文字と小文字の変換コマンド, for the commands for case conversion.
Characters form the contents of an Emacs buffer; also, Emacs commands
are invoked by keys (q.v.), which are sequences of one or more
characters. See section Emacsの文字セット.
A command is a Lisp function specially defined to be able to serve as
a key binding in Emacs. When you type a key (q.v.), its binding
(q.v.) is looked up in the relevant keymaps (q.v.) to find the
command to run. See section キーとコマンド.
- Command Name
A command name is the name of a Lisp symbol which is a command
(see section キーとコマンド). You can invoke any command by its name using
M-x (see section コマンド名によるコマンドの実行法).
A comment is text in a program which is intended only for humans
reading the program, and is marked specially so that it will be
ignored when the program is loaded or compiled. Emacs offers special
commands for creating, aligning and killing comments.
See section コメントの操作.
Compilation is the process of creating an executable program from
source code. Emacs has commands for compiling files of Emacs Lisp
code (see section Emacs用のLispコードライブラリ) and programs in C and other languages
(see section `make'の実行，一般のコンパイラの実行．).
- Complete Key
A complete key is a character or sequence of characters which, when typed
by the user, fully specifies one action to be performed by Emacs. For
example, X and Control-f and Control-x m are keys. Keys
derive their meanings from being bound (q.v.) to commands (q.v.).
Thus, X is conventionally bound to a command to insert `X' in
the buffer; C-x m is conventionally bound to a command to begin
composing a mail message. See section キー.
Completion is what Emacs does when it automatically fills out an
abbreviation for a name into the entire name. Completion is done for
minibuffer (q.v.) arguments when the set of possible valid inputs
is known; for example, on command names, buffer names, and
file names. Completion occurs when TAB, SPC or RET
is typed. See section 入力補完機能.
- Continuation Line
When a line of text is longer than the width of the screen, it
takes up more than one screen line when displayed. We say that the
text line is continued, and all screen lines used for it after the
first are called continuation lines. See section 編集の基本的なコマンド.
ASCII characters with octal codes 0 through 037, and also code 0177,
do not have graphic images assigned to them. These are the control
characters. Any control character can be typed by holding down the
CTRL key and typing some other character; some have special keys
on the keyboard. RET, TAB, ESC, LFD and
DEL are all control characters. See section Emacsの文字セット.
A copyleft is a notice giving the public legal permission to redistribute
a program or other work of art. Copylefts are used by leftists to enrich
the public just as copyrights are used by rightists to gain power over
- Current Buffer
The current buffer in Emacs is the Emacs buffer on which most editing
commands operate. You can select any Emacs buffer as the current one.
See section マルチプルバッファの使い方.
- Current Line
The line point is on (see section ポイント).
- Current Paragraph
The paragraph that point is in. If point is between paragraphs, the
current paragraph is the one that follows point. See section 段落.
- Current Defun
The defun (q.v.) that point is in. If point is between defuns, the
current defun is the one that follows point. See section Defuns.
The cursor is the rectangle on the screen which indicates the position
called point (q.v.) at which insertion and deletion takes place.
The cursor is on or under the character that follows point. Often
people speak of `the cursor' when, strictly speaking, they mean
`point'. See section 編集の基本的なコマンド.
Customization is making minor changes in the way Emacs works. It is
often done by setting variables (see section 変数) or by rebinding
keys (see section キーマップ).
- Default Argument
The default for an argument is the value that will be assumed if you
do not specify one. When the minibuffer is used to read an argument,
the default argument is used if you just type RET.
See section ミニバッファ.
- Default Directory
When you specify a file name that does not start with `/' or `~',
it is interpreted relative to the current buffer's default directory.
See section ファイル名用のミニバッファ.
A defun is a list at the top level of parenthesis or bracket structure
in a program. It is so named because most such lists in Lisp programs
are calls to the Lisp function
defun. See section Defuns.
DEL is a character that runs the command to delete one character of
text. See section 編集の基本的なコマンド.
Deletion means erasing text without saving it. Emacs deletes text
only when it is expected not to be worth saving (all whitespace, or
only one character). The alternative is killing (q.v.).
See section 消去と削除.
- Deletion of Files
Deleting a file means erasing it from the file system.
See section さまざまなファイル操作.
- Deletion of Messages
Deleting a message means flagging it to be eliminated from your mail
file. This can be undone by undeletion until the mail file is expunged.
See section メッセージの消去.
- Deletion of Windows
Deleting a window means eliminating it from the screen. Other windows
expand to use up the space. The deleted window can never come back,
but no actual text is thereby lost. See section マルチプルウィンドウ.
Files in the Unix file system are grouped into file directories.
See section ファイルディレクトリの表示.
Dired is the Emacs facility that displays the contents of a file
directory and allows you to "edit the directory", performing
operations on the files in the directory. See section ディレクトリエディタ, Dired.
- Disabled Command
A disabled command is one that you may not run without special
confirmation. The usual reason for disabling a command is that it is
confusing for beginning users. See section コマンドを使用できないようにする方法.
- Dribble File
A file into which Emacs writes all the characters that the user types
on the keyboard. Dribble files are used to make a record for
debugging Emacs bugs. Emacs does not make a dribble file unless you
tell it to. See section バグの報告.
- Echo Area
The echo area is the bottom line of the screen, used for echoing the
arguments to commands, for asking questions, and printing brief
messages (including error messages). See section エコー領域.
Echoing is acknowledging the receipt of commands by displaying them
(in the echo area). Emacs never echoes single-character keys; longer
keys echo only if you pause while typing them.
An error occurs when an Emacs command cannot execute in the current
circumstances. When an error occurs, execution of the command stops
(unless the command has been programmed to do otherwise) and Emacs
reports the error by printing an error message (q.v.). Type-ahead
is discarded. Then Emacs is ready to read another editing command.
- Error Messages
Error messages are single lines of output printed by Emacs when the
user asks for something impossible to do (such as, killing text
forward when point is at the end of the buffer). They appear in the
echo area, accompanied by a beep.
ESC is a character, used to end incremental searches and as a
prefix for typing Meta characters on keyboards lacking a META
key. Unlike the META key (which, like the SHIFT key, is held
down while another character is typed), the ESC key is pressed
once and applies to the next character typed.
- Fill Prefix
The fill prefix is a string that should be expected at the beginning
of each line when filling is done. It is not regarded as part of the
text to be filled. See section テキストの詰め込み.
Filling text means moving text from line to line so that all the lines
are approximately the same length. See section テキストの詰め込み.
Global means `independent of the current environment; in effect
throughout Emacs'. It is the opposite of local (q.v.). Particular
examples of the use of `global' appear below.
- Global Abbrev
A global definition of an abbrev (q.v.) is effective in all major
modes that do not have local (q.v.) definitions for the same abbrev.
See section 略称.
- Global Keymap
The global keymap (q.v.) contains key bindings that are in effect
except when overridden by local key bindings in a major mode's local
keymap (q.v.). See section キーマップ.
- Global Substitution
Global substitution means replacing each occurrence of one string by
another string through a large amount of text. See section 置換コマンド.
- Global Variable
The global value of a variable (q.v.) takes effect in all buffers
that do not have their own local (q.v.) values for the variable.
See section 変数.
- Graphic Character
Graphic characters are those assigned pictorial images rather than
just names. All the non-Meta (q.v.) characters except for the
Control (q.v.) characters are graphic characters. These include
letters, digits, punctuation, and spaces; they do not include
RET or ESC. In Emacs, typing a graphic character inserts
that character (in ordinary editing modes). See section 編集の基本的なコマンド.
Grinding means adjusting the indentation in a program to fit the
nesting structure. See section 字下げ.
Hardcopy means printed output. Emacs has commands for making printed
listings of text in Emacs buffers. See section ハードコピー出力.
You can type HELP at any time to ask what options you have, or
to ask what any command does. HELP is really Control-h.
See section ヘルプ機能.
An inbox is a file in which mail is delivered by the operating system.
Rmail transfers mail from inboxes to mail files (q.v.) in which the
mail is then stored permanently or until explicitly deleted.
See section Rmailとインボックス.
Indentation means blank space at the beginning of a line. Most
programming languages have conventions for using indentation to
illuminate the structure of the program, and Emacs has special
features to help you set up the correct indentation.
See section 字下げ.
Insertion means copying text into the buffer, either from the keyboard
or from some other place in Emacs.
Justification means adding extra spaces to lines of text to make them
come exactly to a specified width. See section テキストの詰め込み.
- Keyboard Macros
Keyboard macros are a way of defining new Emacs commands from
sequences of existing ones, with no need to write a Lisp program.
See section キーボードマクロ.
A key is a sequence of characters that, when input to Emacs, specify
or begin to specify a single action for Emacs to perform. That is,
the sequence is not more than a single unit. If the key is enough to
specify one action, it is a complete key (q.v.); if it is less than
enough, it is a prefix key (q.v.). See section キー.
The keymap is the data structure that records the bindings (q.v.) of
keys to the commands that they run. For example, the keymap binds the
character C-n to the command function
See section キーマップ.
- Kill Ring
The kill ring is where all text you have killed recently is saved.
You can reinsert any of the killed text still in the ring; this is
called yanking (q.v.). See section ヤンク機能.
Killing means erasing text and saving it on the kill ring so it can be
yanked (q.v.) later. Some other systems call this "cutting".
Most Emacs commands to erase text do killing, as opposed to deletion
(q.v.). See section 消去と削除.
- Killing Jobs
Killing a job (such as, an invocation of Emacs) means making it cease
to exist. Any data within it, if not saved in a file, is lost.
See section Emacsの終了.
A list is, approximately, a text string beginning with an open
parenthesis and ending with the matching close parenthesis. In C mode
and other non-Lisp modes, groupings surrounded by other kinds of matched
delimiters appropriate to the language, such as braces, are also
considered lists. Emacs has special commands for many operations on
lists. See section リストとS式.
Local means `in effect only in a particular context'; the relevant
kind of context is a particular function execution, a particular
buffer, or a particular major mode. It is the opposite of `global'
(q.v.). Specific uses of `local' in Emacs terminology appear below.
- Local Abbrev
A local abbrev definition is effective only if a particular major mode
is selected. In that major mode, it overrides any global definition
for the same abbrev. See section 略称.
- Local Keymap
A local keymap is used in a particular major mode; the key bindings
(q.v.) in the current local keymap override global bindings of the
same keys. See section キーマップ.
- Local Variable
A local value of a variable (q.v.) applies to only one buffer.
See section ローカル変数.
M- in the name of a character is an abbreviation for META,
one of the modifier keys that can accompany any character.
See section Emacsの文字セット.
`M-C-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for
Control-Meta; it means the same thing as `C-M-'. If your
terminal lacks a real META key, you type a Control-Meta character by
typing ESC and then typing the corresponding Control character.
See section Emacsの文字セット.
M-x is the key which is used to call an Emacs command by name.
This is how commands that are not bound to keys are called.
See section コマンド名によるコマンドの実行法.
Mail means messages sent from one user to another through the computer
system, to be read at the recipient's convenience. Emacs has commands for
composing and sending mail, and for reading and editing the mail you have
received. See section メイルの送信. See section Rmailを使ったメイルの読み方, for how to read mail.
- Mail File
A mail file is a file which is edited using Rmail and in which Rmail
stores mail. See section Rmailを使ったメイルの読み方.
- Major Mode
The major modes are a mutually exclusive set of options each of which
configures Emacs for editing a certain sort of text. Ideally, each
programming language has its own major mode. See section 主モード.
The mark points to a position in the text. It specifies one end of
the region (q.v.), point being the other end. Many commands operate
on all the text from point to the mark. See section マークとリージョン.
- Mark Ring
The mark ring is used to hold several recent previous locations of the
mark, just in case you want to move back to them. See section マークリング.
Meta is the name of a modifier bit which a command character may have.
It is present in a character if the character is typed with the
META key held down. Such characters are given names that start
with Meta-. For example, Meta-< is typed by holding down
META and at the same time typing < (which itself is done,
on most terminals, by holding down SHIFT and typing ,).
See section Emacsの文字セット.
- Meta Character
A Meta character is one whose character code includes the Meta bit.
The minibuffer is the window that appears when necessary inside the
echo area (q.v.), used for reading arguments to commands.
See section ミニバッファ.
- Minor Mode
A minor mode is an optional feature of Emacs which can be switched on
or off independently of all other features. Each minor mode has a
command to turn it on or off. See section 副モード.
- Mode Line
The mode line is the line at the bottom of each text window (q.v.),
which gives status information on the buffer displayed in that window.
See section モード行.
- Modified Buffer
A buffer (q.v.) is modified if its text has been changed since the
last time the buffer was saved (or since when it was created, if it
has never been saved). See section ファイルのセーブ.
- Moving Text
Moving text means erasing it from one place and inserting it in
another. This is done by killing (q.v.) and then yanking (q.v.).
See section 消去と削除.
- Named Mark
A named mark is a register (q.v.) in its role of recording a
location in text so that you can move point to that location.
See section レジスタ.
Narrowing means creating a restriction (q.v.) that limits editing in
the current buffer to only a part of the text in the buffer. Text
outside that part is inaccessible to the user until the boundaries are
widened again, but it is still there, and saving the file saves it
all. See section ナローイング.
LFD characters in the buffer terminate lines of text and are
called newlines. See section Emacsの文字セット.
- Numeric Argument
A numeric argument is a number, specified before a command, to change
the effect of the command. Often the numeric argument serves as a
repeat count. See section 数引数.
An option is a variable (q.v.) that exists so that you can customize
Emacs by giving it a new value. See section 変数.
- Overwrite Mode
Overwrite mode is a minor mode. When it is enabled, ordinary text
characters replace the existing text after point rather than pushing
it to the right. See section 副モード.
A page is a unit of text, delimited by formfeed characters (ASCII
Control-L, code 014) coming at the beginning of a line. Some Emacs
commands are provided for moving over and operating on pages.
See section ページ.
Paragraphs are the medium-size unit of English text. There are
special Emacs commands for moving over and operating on paragraphs.
See section 段落.
We say that Emacs parses words or expressions in the text being
edited. Really, all it knows how to do is find the other end of a
word or expression. See section 構文テーブル.
Point is the place in the buffer at which insertion and deletion
occur. Point is considered to be between two characters, not at one
character. The terminal's cursor (q.v.) indicates the location of
point. See section 編集の基本的なコマンド.
- Prefix Key
A prefix key is a key (q.v.) whose sole function is to introduce a
set of multi-character keys. Control-x is an example of prefix
key; thus, any two-character sequence starting with C-x is also
a legitimate key. See section キー.
- Primary Mail File
Your primary mail file is the file named `RMAIL' in your home
directory, where all mail that you receive is stored by Rmail unless you
make arrangements to do otherwise. See section Rmailを使ったメイルの読み方.
A prompt is text printed to ask the user for input. Printing a prompt
is called prompting. Emacs prompts always appear in the echo area
(q.v.). One kind of prompting happens when the minibuffer is used
to read an argument (see section ミニバッファ); the echoing which happens
when you pause in the middle of typing a multicharacter key is also a
kind of prompting (see section エコー領域).
Quitting means cancelling a partially typed command or a running
command, using C-g. See section 取りやめ(Quit)と中止(Abort).
Quoting means depriving a character of its usual special significance.
In Emacs this is usually done with Control-q. What constitutes special
significance depends on the context and on convention. For example,
an "ordinary" character as an Emacs command inserts itself; so in
this context, a special character is any character that does not
normally insert itself (such as DEL, for example), and quoting
it makes it insert itself as if it were not special. Not all contexts
allow quoting. See section 編集の基本的なコマンド.
- Read-only Buffer
A read-only buffer is one whose text you are not allowed to change.
Normally Emacs makes buffers read-only when they contain text which
has a special significance to Emacs; for example, Dired buffers.
Visiting a file that is write protected also makes a read-only buffer.
See section マルチプルバッファの使い方.
- Recursive Editing Level
A recursive editing level is a state in which part of the execution of
a command involves asking the user to edit some text. This text may
or may not be the same as the text to which the command was applied.
The mode line indicates recursive editing levels with square brackets
(`[' and `]'). See section 再帰編集レベル.
Redisplay is the process of correcting the image on the screen to
correspond to changes that have been made in the text being edited.
See section 画面構成.
See `regular expression'.
The region is the text between point (q.v.) and the mark (q.v.).
Many commands operate on the text of the region. See section マークとリージョン.
Registers are named slots in which text or buffer positions or
rectangles can be saved for later use. See section レジスタ.
- Regular Expression
A regular expression is a pattern that can match various text strings;
for example, `l[0-9]+' matches `l' followed by one or more
digits. See section 正規表現の構文.
See `global substitution'.
A buffer's restriction is the amount of text, at the beginning or the
end of the buffer, that is temporarily invisible and inaccessible.
Giving a buffer a nonzero amount of restriction is called narrowing
(q.v.). See section ナローイング.
RET is a character than in Emacs runs the command to insert a
newline into the text. It is also used to terminate most arguments
read in the minibuffer (q.v.). See section Emacsの文字セット.
Saving a buffer means copying its text into the file that was visited
(q.v.) in that buffer. This is the way text in files actually gets
changed by your Emacs editing. See section ファイルのセーブ.
Scrolling means shifting the text in the Emacs window so as to see a
different part of the buffer. See section 画面の制御.
Searching means moving point to the next occurrence of a specified
string. See section 探索と置換.
Selecting a buffer means making it the current (q.v.) buffer.
See section マルチプルバッファの使い方.
Self-documentation is the feature of Emacs which can tell you what any
command does, or give you a list of all commands related to a topic
you specify. You ask for self-documentation with the help character,
C-h. See section ヘルプ機能.
Emacs has commands for moving by or killing by sentences.
See section 文.
A sexp (short for `s-expression') is the basic syntactic unit of Lisp
in its textual form: either a list, or Lisp atom. Many Emacs commands
operate on sexps. The term `sexp' is generalized to languages other
than Lisp, to mean a syntactically recognizable expression.
See section リストとS式.
- Simultaneous Editing
Simultaneous editing means two users modifying the same file at once.
Simultaneous editing if not detected can cause one user to lose his
work. Emacs detects all cases of simultaneous editing and warns the
user to investigate them. See section 同時編集に対する保護.
A string is a kind of Lisp data object which contains a sequence of
characters. Many Emacs variables are intended to have strings as
values. The Lisp syntax for a string consists of the characters in
the string with a `"' before and another `"' after. A
`"' that is part of the string must be written as `\"' and a
`\' that is part of the string must be written as `\\'. All
other characters, including newline, can be included just by writing
them inside the string; however, escape sequences as in C, such as
`\n' for newline or `\241' using an octal character code,
are allowed as well.
- String Substitution
See `global substitution'.
- Syntax Table
The syntax table tells Emacs which characters are part of a word,
which characters balance each other like parentheses, etc.
See section 構文テーブル.
- Tag Table
A tag table is a file that serves as an index to the function
definitions in one or more other files. See section タグテーブル.
- Termscript File
A termscript file contains a record of all characters sent by Emacs to
the terminal. It is used for tracking down bugs in Emacs redisplay.
Emacs does not make a termscript file unless you tell it to.
See section バグの報告.
Two meanings (see section 自然言語用コマンド):
Data consisting of a sequence of characters, as opposed to binary
numbers, images, graphics commands, executable programs, and the like.
The contents of an Emacs buffer are always text in this sense.
Data consisting of written human language, as opposed to programs,
or following the stylistic conventions of human language.
- Top Level
Top level is the normal state of Emacs, in which you are editing the
text of the file you have visited. You are at top level whenever you
are not in a recursive editing level (q.v.) or the minibuffer
(q.v.), and not in the middle of a command. You can get back to top
level by aborting (q.v.) and quitting (q.v.). See section 取りやめ(Quit)と中止(Abort).
があります(see section テキストの入れ換え)．
Truncating text lines in the display means leaving out any text on a
line that does not fit within the right margin of the window
displaying it. See also `continuation line'.
See section 編集の基本的なコマンド.
Undoing means making your previous editing go in reverse, bringing
back the text that existed earlier in the editing session.
See section 変更の取り消し(Undo).
A variable is an object in Lisp that can store an arbitrary value.
Emacs uses some variables for internal purposes, and has others (known
as `options' (q.v.)) just so that you can set their values to
control the behavior of Emacs. The variables used in Emacs that you
are likely to be interested in are listed in the Variables Index in
this manual. See section 変数, for information on variables.
Visiting a file means loading its contents into a buffer (q.v.)
where they can be edited. See section ファイルの読み込み.
Whitespace is any run of consecutive formatting characters (space,
tab, newline, and backspace).
Widening is removing any restriction (q.v.) on the current buffer;
it is the opposite of narrowing (q.v.). See section ナローイング.
Emacs divides the screen into one or more windows, each of which can
display the contents of one buffer (q.v.) at any time.
See section 画面構成, for basic information on how Emacs uses the screen.
See section マルチプルウィンドウ, for commands to control the use of windows.
- Word Abbrev
Synonymous with `abbrev'.
- Word Search
Word search is searching for a sequence of words, considering the
punctuation between them as insignificant. See section 単語の検索.
Yanking means reinserting text previously killed. It can be used to
undo a mistaken kill, or for copying or moving text. Some other
systems call this "pasting". See section ヤンク機能.
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